Prefetch is a term inherited from AMQP that is often misunderstood by users.
The prefetch limit is a limit for the number of tasks (messages) a worker can reserve for itself. If it is zero, the worker will keep consuming messages, not respecting that there may be other available worker nodes that may be able to process them sooner[#], or that the messages may not even fit in memory.
The workers’ default prefetch count is the CELERYD_PREFETCH_MULTIPLIER setting multiplied by the number of child worker processes[#].
If you have many tasks with a long duration you want the multiplier value to be 1, which means it will only reserve one task per worker process at a time.
However – If you have many short-running tasks, and throughput/roundtrip latency[#] is important to you, this number should be large. The worker is able to process more tasks per second if the messages have already been prefetched, and is available in memory. You may have to experiment to find the best value that works for you.
Values like 50 or 150 might make sense in these circumstances. Say 64, or 128.
If you have a combination of long- and short-running tasks, the best option is to use two worker nodes that are configured separatly, and route the tasks according to the run-time. (see Routing Tasks).
|[†]||RabbitMQ and other brokers deliver messages round-robin, so this doesn’t apply to an active system. If there is no prefetch limit and you restart the cluster, there will be timing delays between nodes starting. If there are 3 offline nodes and one active node, all messages will be delivered to the active node.|
|[‡]||This is the concurrency setting; CELERYD_CONCURRENCY or the -c option to celeryd.|
Reserve one task at a time
When using early acknowledgement (default), a prefetch multiplier of 1 means the worker will reserve at most one extra task for every active worker process.
When users ask if it’s possible to disable “prefetching of tasks”, often what they really want is to have a worker only reserve as many tasks as there are child processes.
But this is not possible without enabling late acknowledgements acknowledgements; A task that has been started, will be retried if the worker crashes mid execution so the task must be idempotent (see also notes at Should I use retry or acks_late?).
You can enable this behavior by using the following configuration options: